Tag Archives: Anne Boleyn

On this day in 1542 – Thomas Wyatt died

Thomas Wyatt was born in 1503 at Allington Castle near Maidstone to Henry Wyatt and his wife, Anne Skinner. Henry was one of King Henry VII’s Privy Councillors, a position that continued upon the ascension of King Henry VIII.

Wyatt would first enter the court of King Henry VIII in 1515 as a ‘sewer extraordinary’ (another name for a waiter). In the same year he entered St. John’s College, Cambridge. Three years later in 1520, aged 17; Wyatt married Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Thomas Brooke, 8th Baron Cobham. The couple would go on to have a son the following year; also called Thomas (he would go on to lead Wyatt’s Rebellion years later). The marriage between Wyatt and Elizabeth fell apart in approximately 1525 when Wyatt separated from his wife and charged her with adultery. At some point as their marriage was failing Wyatt had allegedly fallen for Anne Boleyn, although they most likely had met the extent of their relationship is unknown.

Thomas WyattSir Thomas Wyatt as painted by Hans Holbein the younger

Wyatt began undertaking more roles within the court and accompanied Sir John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, to Rome to petition Pope Clement VII to annul the King’s marriage to Katherine of Aragon and allow him to marry again. He was also appointed as High Marshal of Calais between 1528 and 1530 and Commissioner of the Peace of Essex in 1532. When King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn travelled to Calais in order to present Anne to the French King, Wyatt was part of the retinue that travelled with them he would later serve in Anne Boleyn’s coronation in June 1533.

Wyatt was knighted in 1535 but just a year later he would find himself imprisoned in the Tower of London suspected of being one of the men accused of adultery with Anne Boleyn he was also accused of arguing with the Duke of Suffolk. Whilst imprisoned in the Tower Wyatt likely saw the execution of Anne Boleyn and the five men accused alongside her, as someone who had written poetry throughout his life he composed ‘Innocentia Veritas Viat FidesCircumdederunt me inmici mei’, which read;

“Who list his wealth and ease retain,
Himself let him unknown contain.
Press not too fast in at that gate
Where the return stands by disdain,
For sure, circa Regna tonat.

The high mountains are blasted oft
When the low valley is mild and soft.
Fortune with Health stands at debate.
The fall is grievous from aloft.
And sure, circa Regna tonat.

These bloody days have broken my heart.
My lust, my youth did them depart,
And blind desire of estate.
Who hastes to climb seeks to revert.
Of truth, circa Renga tonat.

The bell tower showed me such sight
That in my head sticks day and night.
There did I learn out of a grate,
For all favour, glory, or might,
That yet circa Regna tonat.

By proof, I say, there did I learn.
Wit helpeth not defence too yerne,
Of innocency to plead or prate.
Bear low, therefore, give God the stern,
For sure, circa Regna tonat.

Thomas Wyatts poetryAn example of Thomas Wyatt’s writing

Wyatt was released soon after Anne Boleyn’s death and returned to favour within Henry’s court, he was made ambassador to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, in Spain returning to England in June 1539 before departing again in May 1540 to resume his role as ambassador.

Although Wyatt was technically still married in 1537 he took Elizabeth Darrell as his mistress and they had three sons together and in 1540 he was granted the site and manorial estates of the dissolved Boxley Abbey.

In 1541 Wyatt was charged with treason after an original charge from 1538 was revived against him by Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London. Bonner had claimed that Wyatt had been rude about the King and also had contact with Cardinal Pole, the King’s relative and papal legate who Henry was most displeased with after he sided with Rome over his divorce to Katherine of Aragon. Wyatt was again placed inside the Tower of London but was pardoned once again, possibly by the request of the current queen, Catherine Howard. Wyatt was again released and given royal offices following his pardon from the King. However, shortly after welcoming Charles V’s envoy at Falmouth he was taken ill and died on 11th October 1542 whilst staying with Sir John Horsey at Clifton Maybank House, Dorset. He is buried in Sherborne Abbey.

Wyatt’s poetry was published 15 years after his death and along with Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was one of the first to introduce the sonnet into England.

Wyatt-plaquePlaque dedicated to Thomas Wyatt in Sherborne Abbey

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On this day in 1534 – Pope Clement VII died

Pope Clement VII was born on 26th May 1478 as Giulio di Giuliano de’Medici. He was born in Florence one month after his father had been assassinated after the Pazzi Conspiracy. Giulio’s parents were not formally married, however, a loophole in canon law allowed for his parents to be betrothed which allowed Giulio to be considered legitimate. Giulio’s mother, Fioretta Gorini, died when he was a young age and was educated by his uncle, Lorenzo de’Medici, ruler of Florence.

In 1513 Giulio’s cousin Giovanni de’Medici was made Pope Leo X and made Giulio a Knight of Rhodes and Grand Prior of Capua and as a result he became one of the most powerful figures in Rome. He became one of Pope Leo X’s principal ministers and confidant.

On 23rd September 1513 Guilio was made Cardinal. Giulio was credited with being the main director of papal policy during his cousin’s reign. Between 1521 and 1522 he was Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Worcester.

Pope Leo X died in 1521 and Guilio was considered to be papabile in conclave however, he was not elected despite being one of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, preferred candidates. Guilio was a leading Cardinal during the papacy of Pope Adrian VI, who reigned less than a year before his unexpected death on 14th September 1523.

With Pope Adrian VI’s death a new conclave convened and Guilio was elected as Pope Clement VII. Upon his election one of Pope Clement’s first tasks was to send the Archbishop of Capua to the Kings of France, Spain and England in the hope of ending the Italian Wars, his attempt at peace failed. Following King Francis I of France’s invasion of Milan in 1524 Clement quit the Imperial-Spanish side of the Italian Wars and allied himself with the Italian princes which included the Republic of Venice and France in January 1525. The treaty was considered patriotic at the time, however, the unstable economy led to attacks from the Roman barons and the intervention of the Holy Roman Emperor. A month later Francis I was defeated and captured following the Battle of Pavia and Clement returned to his previous alliance with Charles V after signing an alliance with the viceroy of Naples.

Clement, however, once again switched his allegiance following the release of Francis I after the Treaty of Madrid in 1526. The Pope entered into the League of Cognac alongside France, Venice and Francesco Sforza of Milan.

Pope Clement’s change in politics caused the rise of the Imperial party inside the Curia; Cardinal Pompeo Colonna’s troops pillaged Vatican Hill and took control of Rome. Clement was forced to return the Papal States to an alliance with the Imperial side; however, Cardinal Colonna left the siege in Rome and headed to Naples leaving Clement to not follow through on his promise and remaining in alliance with the French. Clement also dismissed the Cardinal from his charge. Clement found himself alone in his alliance with France after the Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso d’Este, sided with the Imperial troops therefore leaving the road to Rome open for the German Landsknechts led by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon.

The Duke of Bourbon died during the siege and had left his army unpaid, starving and with no clear leader. On the 6th May 1527 the desolate army worked their way through Rome with many reports of vandalism, murder and rape. Pope Clement had no choice but to surrender on 6th June from Castel Sant’Angelo where he had taken refuge. In exchange for his life he agreed to pay 400,000 ducati in exchange for his life with the conditions that Parma, Piacenza, Civitavecchia and Modena were handed over to the Holy Roman Empire, whilst Venice also took advantage of the situation by capturing Cervia and Ravenna. For the six months following his surrender Clement was kept prisoner in Castel Sant’Angelo before he escaped after paying some Imperial officers. Clement disguised himself as a peddler and went first to Orvieto before heading to Viterbo he eventually returned to Rome in October 1528 to find is destroyed and depopulated.

During the Sack of Rome, in 1527, Clement received a request from King Henry VIII asking for his marriage to Katherine of Aragon to be annulled on the basis that it was unlawful in the eyes of God due to her previous marriage to his brother, Arthur. A dispensation had been issued from Pope Julius II before the marriage took place and Clement ruled that the dispensation was lawful and the marriage could not be annulled. The English clergy and lawyers advised Henry’s Privy Council that they could not forced the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Warham, to go against the Pope’s rulings. Warham died soon after and Henry persuaded the Pope to appoint Thomas Cranmer as the next Archbishop. Cranmer was a friend to Anne Boleyn and a reformer. Pope Clement issued the Papal Bulls that would allow Cranmer to take the position on the condition that he took an oath of allegiance to the Pope. Cranmer was consecrated as Archbishop but declared that he did not agree with the oath he was being asked to take. Cranmer granted Henry the annulment that he required and Henry swiftly married Anne Boleyn. Both Henry and Cranmer were excommunicated from the Catholic Church as a result of their actions. Henry would eventually lead Parliament in passing the Act of Supremacy that declared that Henry was the head of the Church of England and the papacy had no authority within the country.

On 25th September 1534 Pope Clement VII died, it was believed that he died after eating a poisonous mushroom; his body was interred in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Just days prior to his death Clement had ordered Michelangelo to paint The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.

Pope Clement VIIPope Clement VII

Book review – Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower: A new assessment by Sandra Vasoli.

Anne Boleyn’s final days were spent in the Tower of London after being arrested and accused of adultery. Alone and desperate to inform her husband, King Henry VIII, of her innocence on 6th May 1536 she wrote a letter to the King in the hope that he would forgive her. It read;

“Sir, your Grace’s displeasure, and my Imprisonment are Things so strange unto me, as what to Write, or what to Excuse, I am altogether ignorant; whereas you sent unto me (willing me to confess a Truth, and so obtain your Favour) by such a one, whom you know to be my ancient and professed Enemy; I no sooner received the Message by him, than I rightly conceived your Meaning; and if, as you say, confessing Truth indeed may procure my safety, I shall with all Willingness and Duty perform your Command.

But let your Grace ever imagine that your poor Wife will ever be brought to acknowledge a Fault, where not so much as Thought thereof proceeded. And to speak a truth, never Prince had Wife more Loyal in all Duty, and in all true Affection, than you have found in Anne Boleyn, with which Name and Place could willingly have contented my self, as if God, and your Grace’s Pleasure had been so pleased. Neither did I at any time so far forge my self in my Exaltation, or received Queenship, but that I always looked for such an Alteration as now I find; for the ground of my preferment being on no surer Foundation than your Grace’s Fancy, the least Alteration, I knew, was fit and sufficient to draw that Fancy to some other subject.

You have chosen me, from a low Estate, to be your Queen and Companion, far beyond my Desert or Desire. If then you found me worthy of such Honour, Good your Grace, let not any light Fancy, or bad Counsel of mine Enemies, withdraw your Princely Favour from me; neither let that Stain of a Disloyal Heart towards your good Grace, ever cast so foul a Blot on your most Dutiful Wife, and the Infant Princess your Daughter:

Try me, good King, but let me have a Lawful Trial, and let not my sworn Enemies sit as my Accusers and Judges; yes, let me receive an open Trial, for my Truth shall fear no open shame; then shall you see, either mine Innocency cleared, your Suspicion and Conscience satisfied, the Igominy and Slander of the World stopped, or my Guilt openly declared. So that whatsoever God or you may determine of me, your Grace may be freed from an open Censure; and mine Offence being so lawfully proved, your Grace is at liberty, both before God and Man, not only to execute worthy Punishment on me as an unlawful Wife, but to follow your Affection already settled on that party, for whose sake I am now as I am, whose Name I could some good while since have pointed unto: Your Grace being not ignorant of my Suspicion therein.

But if you have already determined of me, and that not only my Death but an Infamous Slander must bring you the enjoying of your desired Happiness; then I desire of God, that he will pardon your great Sin therein, and likewise mine Enemies, the Instruments thereof; that he will not call you o a strict Account for your unprincely and cruel usage of me, at his General Judgement-Seat, where both of you and my self must shortly appear, and in whose Judgement, I doubt not, (whatsoever the World may think of me) mine Innocence shall be openly known, and sufficiently cleared.

My last and only Request shall be, That my self may only bear the Burthen of your Grace’s Displeasure, and that it may not touch the Innocent Souls of those poor Gentlemen, who (as I understand) are likewise in strait Imprisonment for my sake. If ever I have found favour in your Sight; if ever the Name of Anne Boleyn hath been pleasing to your Ears, then let me obtain this Request; and I will so leave to trouble your Grace any further, with mine earnest Prayers to the Trinity to have your Grace in his good keeping, and to direct you in all your Actions.

Your most Loyal and ever Faithful Wife, Anne Bullen

From my doleful Prison the Tower, this 6th of May.”

anne-boleyns-final-letter

The origins of this one letter has been discussed and debated for years. Did Anne Boleyn really write this? Why was it found amongst the papers of Thomas Cromwell after his execution? Did King Henry VIII ever read the letter or even regret sending Anne to her death? Well Sandra Vasoli has sent about re-examining the letter and found some compelling new evidence that could potentially answer the question of whether Henry regretted his actions or not.

Sandra begins by taking us through a brief history of Anne’s relationship with Henry and the breakdown of their marriage which resulted in Anne’s imprisonment in the Tower of London. We also see the rivalry between Anne and Thomas Cromwell.

Sandra also provides what happened to the letter after Anne had written it and how it ended up in the possession of Robert Bruce Cotton and eventually the British Library. The story of the letter’s journey is incredible and Cotton’s collection also included the letters from to Thomas Cromwell from William Kingston regarding Anne’s behaviour during her time in the Tower.

The author of this letter has long been disputed with many arguing that Anne did not write it at all, however, Sandra believes that Anne may have dictated the letter to someone who put the words onto paper. Sandra also provides an analysis as to the contents of the letter. It is fascinating to see just what was going through Anne’s mind as she attempted one last time to appeal to her husband to save her life.

There is a clear timeline of events in Sandra’s book which reaches its pinnacle with Sandra’s discovery of Henry’s regret, it was said he spoke his regret as he approached his death. This discovery is fascinating and really made me look at the way I view King Henry VIII and the events that surrounded May 1536.

Anne Boleyn’s letter from the Tower is a great book that explains one particular event in the life of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. I for one hope that this latest discovery shines a new light on an event that has been discussed throughout time. Sandra has done a tremendous job in giving a greater understanding in the history of Anne’s letter and I for one hope this discovery of Henry’s regret begins to change how we view why Henry reached the decision to execute the wife he tore the country apart for.

cover

Sandra recently took part in a book tour and visited Tudor Chronicles to talk about how she came to see the Book of Hours that Henry and Anne wrote notes to each other. You can read it here https://thetudorchronicles.wordpress.com/2015/09/15/sandra-vasolis-book-tour-anne-boleyns-letter-from-the-tower/

Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower: A new assessment is available now from http://www.amazon.co.uk/Anne-Boleyns-Letter-Tower-Assessment-ebook/dp/B014R7227A/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1442843088&sr=8-1&keywords=anne+boleyn%27s+letter+from+the+tower

Sandra Vasoli’s book tour – Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower

Today Tudor Chronicles welcomes Sandra Vasoli, author of ‘Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower’ on her book tour. Sandra has written a wonderful article about the British Library and how Sandra came to view Anne’s Book of Hours.Sandra’s book is available in either paperback or Kindle and published by MadeGlobal Publishing.

Here is Sandra in her own words about the British Library and Viewing Original Documents.

The British Library, adjacent to St Pancras Station in Euston Road, London, is the national library of the United Kingdom. It is truly a place of amazement and delight for individuals of all ages. It’s the largest library in the world based upon the number of catalogued items. They total over 170 million, and are held in many languages and formats.

british-library-01

(illustration The British Library http://static.trustedreviews.com/94/b5ce19/eb6b/british-library-01.jpg)

Maybe most spectacular is the Library’s collection of historical manuscripts and artefacts. There are precious holdings which date as far back as 2,000 BC. The Library often puts selected pieces on display, creating opportunities for people to see things which are astonishing by virtue of their age and importance in the history of humankind.

Beinecke Library

(Illustration British Library glass stacks http://www.educationbash.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Yale-Rare-Book-Manuscript-Library-4.jpg)

With regard to early manuscripts, papers and documents, the Library shines. Very convenient to the interested person or serious researcher, there are digitized versions of documents available which have contributed to history all over the world, because the British Library partners with major educational settings globally. In addition, the research staffs from various departments within the Library are enormously helpful in supporting people in their studies .

The Library’s website is well worth poring over, especially for anyone interested in seeing early documents. One of my personal areas of interest and delight includes viewing early illuminated manuscripts. Once logged into the Library’s website, go to the page ‘Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts’ http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/welcome.htm. There, you can key in a time period, or the name of a historical figure, and you will have a chance to see any and all documents or items which pertained to that person or time.

For another fascinating computer-based search, visit the tab ‘Services’, and ‘Images Online’. This will provide an endless array of options to explore. As a point of example, if you are a fan of Anne Boleyn, type her name in the box designated for ‘Search Images Online’, and you will be rewarded with 22 wonderful items to discover and view, including paintings, letters and a gorgeous image of the tiny, gold –bound book of hours that Anne was said to hand to one of her ladies while she was on the scaffold awaiting her death.

untitled-picture

(illustration Anne’s book https://bookaddictionuk.files.wordpress.com/2015/06/untitled-picture.png)

How did I become acquainted with the magnificent British Library? In 2011, I had begun research to write the first of my two-part series of a novel of Anne Boleyn. The book, Je Anne Boleyn: Struck With the Dart of Love, is a memoir about Anne’s relationship with Henry VIII. I became very interested in the book of hours which it is reputed Anne owned, and in which both she and Henry wrote flirtatious inscriptions to each other. I had learned that this book is owned and held by the British Library, and I decided to attempt to see it. I had no idea whether this effort would work, but I spoke with the staff in Research Services and received my instructions about what was required to receive a Reader’s Pass for the Manuscripts Reading Room. As a part of my planned visit to London, I went to the Library, with necessary documents and information in hand. A last minute requirement caused me a great deal of panic, as my heart was now set on seeing this book, and it appeared that I might not be admitted. But due to the help of a London based friend, I was able to complete all my verification paperwork, and lo and behold, I entered the Reading Room.

For me, at least, this was a marvelous, but daunting experience. There was a reverential hush throughout the lovely, brightly lit space. Many students of all ages were situated in study carrels, which have been designed for the purpose of safely and carefully viewing precious, ancient documents. I was assigned a seat, and placed my scant belongings (at that time, the only items permitted were a notebook, number 2 pencils, eyeglasses, and a magnifying glass. Now, I believe, laptops or pads are permitted). I submitted my request, using the Library catalogue number, through the internal computer system, and then checked with the staff at the desk, where I was told to wait, and that I would be summoned if and when my request was approved. I nervously waited at my station, and looked about , craning to glimpse what incredible items others were studying. I was dumbfounded, seeing the ancient Greek, Latin, medieval, and even Egyptian hieroglyph manuscripts opened with people scrutinizing them, busily making notes.

After a short wait, I was asked to approach the desk. The pleasant young woman handed me a small box. She lifted the lid, and there, lying in its cardboard covering, was a leatherbound volume. My heart pounded, and I looked at her questioningly. She said, “certainly, you may take it and look at it. You are the only one permitted to handle it, please do not allow anyone else to touch. Use the tips of your clean, dry fingers only, and touch as little as possible.” She handed me a ‘snake’ of smooth pebbles strung together which are placed across the pages to hold them open. I returned to my desk, barely breathing.

I will never forget the feeling I had when when I opened the book. The binding had been replaced during the reign of George I in the early 1700’s (his inscription was on the binding), so that was not original. But the pages! They were of the smoothest, highest quality vellum, which is lamb or kidskin. And the illuminations – well, they were nearly indescribable. My magnifying glass was critical, because the book was small, smaller than the size of one’s hand, and the illustrations were painted with stupendous detail. The colours were so vibrant that the blues almost hurt the eyes, and the gold leaf, of which there was a great deal, shone and gleamed. This clearly was a book which had been enormously costly, and had been taken great care of in its day. Slowly and carefully I turned the pages, marveling over every one, until I came to the page illustrated with the image of Mary, with the archangel and the dove of the Holy Spirit seeking to gain her attention, to tell her that she would have a Son. The illustration was beautiful – but below… there was Anne’s handwriting! It was before my own eyes, and I realized that she had touched the very page I had just touched, and had written a message to Henry, her love – meant only for him. It was an unimaginable moment for me. And from then on, my concept about research was never the same. I looked at the words she had written:

By daily proof you shall me find

To be to you both loving and kind

Kings 9 66v

(illustration Anne’s Page in Book of Hours http://41.media.tumblr.com/f359953b92731fb7293072eb5fa8e0c5/tumblr_nojudaWm8Y1rnltc5o1_1280.jpg)

Paging onward, it was difficult, because I wanted to study each leaf, yet I was anxious to find Henry’s inscription. That lay further on in the book – almost at the end. Finally, I turned a page and there it was. The ink had faded to a soft grey, and the nib he had used was sharper – Anne’s letters were broad – but on the page with the bleeding and flayed Christ, he had written in French :

“If you remember my love in your prayers as strongly as I adore you,

I shall hardly be forgotten, for I am yours. Henry R. forever.”

annebs_large

(illustration Henry’s page in Book of Hours http://onthetudortrail.com/Blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/annebs_large.jpg)

I studied his writing, and the entire book, as long as I was able. Finally, I had to relinquish it, and return it to the Manuscripts desk. I had taken copious notes, which today I treasure. I have been told that it is becoming more and more difficult to obtain permission to view many of those priceless and singular documents.

Once I had an opportunity to reflect on what I had seen, I was struck by something which I feel the book told me. The story of this Book of Hours, as repeated by historians, is that the book belonged to Anne before 1529. Once their romance had commenced, and in Mass one morning, she wrote Henry her message in the book and passed it to him. He found her note, and seeing as he was already doing business and signing documents (as apparently he did during morning Mass) he penned the response, and sent the book back to her. After having held this lovely item and having viewed it closely, I found that I disagreed with this legend. My first strong realization was that this particular book, lavishly illustrated, with gorgeous,expensive, and numerous pages, was too costly to belong to anyone but royalty. Therefore, the story that it was Anne’s prior to 1529 I find erroneous. (If compared to the Books of Hours she did in fact own, and are kept at Hever, it is quite apparent that they are much less extravagant than this one). I believe the book was owned by Henry. The second deviation I find is that Books of Hours were not typically used at Mass. Instead, congregants used Missals, which followed the rites of the Mass. The Henry and Anne volume is clearly a Book of Hours, which was intended to be carried throughout the day, to refer to when praying at differing times and locations. This causes me to doubt the legend of the exchange at Mass. The pages of the book were not well worn, therefore I don’t believe it was often used, but instead was a beautiful belonging of Henry’s. I think he decided to give her the Book, and wrote his message in it when he was wooing her. I feel that Anne received it, and took her time in selecting a page on which to respond, as well as the message she would inscribe before she returned it to Henry. These inscriptions were not done hastily, it is easy to see when studying them.

What happened to this beautiful object? How did it come to remain with us today? I don’t know, but my guess is that Henry gifted it to Anne after he had read her wonderful, promising inscription. Perhaps she then gave it to someone close to her, or perhaps it was left in her belongings after her death and saved for her daughter Elizabeth who ensured its safety.

I learned that day, not only about the Book itself, but just how much the study of original documents can inform our assessment of history. It makes all the difference!

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Sandra Vasoli, author of Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower, earned a Bachelor’s degree in English and biology from Villanova University before embarking on a thirty-five-year career in human resources for a large international company.

Having written essays, stories, and articles all her life, Vasoli was prompted by her overwhelming fascination with the Tudor dynasty to try her hand at writing both historical fiction and non-fiction. While researching what would eventually become her Je Anne Boleyn series, Vasoli was granted unprecedented access to the Papal Library. There she was able to read the original love letters from Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn—an event that contributed greatly to her research and writing.

Vasoli currently lives in Gwynedd Valley, Pennsylvania, with her husband and two greyhounds.

A huge thank you to Sandra for her words.

Sandra’s book tour will continue all week with visits to the following sites

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Anne Boleyn’s Letter from the Tower is available now and can be purchased here:  http://www.amazon.co.uk/Anne-Boleyns-Letter-Tower-Assessment/dp/8494372157/ref=sr_1_1_twi_pap_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1442061382&sr=8-1&keywords=sandra+vasoli

Our review of the book will be up later in the week but in the meantime MadeGlobal Publishing have offered one copy of the book as a competition, for further details please head over to http://www.facebook.com/TudorChronicles to enter, one winner will be selected at random after the competition closes at midnight on September 18th and will be contacted after this date.

On this day in 1540 – Sir William Kingston died

Sir William Kingston was born around 1476 and grew up in Painswick, Gloucestershire and first appeared in court life in June 1509 as a yeoman of the guard and again in 1512 as an under marshal in the army. During his time in the army he was on the Spanish coast at San Sebastian with Dr William Knight. He is noted as being involved in discussions regarding the best course of action for the English troops that were under the leadership of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset.

Kingston was also present at the Battle of Flodden and was knighted in 1513 (you can read more about the Battle of Flodden here – https://wordpress.com/post/85308923/809/)

Kingston was appointed as High Sheriff of Gloucestershire for 1514-1515. Kingston was present in the French court during 1520 after Sir Richard Wingfield wrote to King Henry VIII that the French Dauphin had taken a liking to Kingston. King Henry VIII had also taken to Kingston and he was present with the King at the Field of the Cloth of Gold and later at the meeting with the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Henry was so impressed with Kingston he presented him with a horse.

For the next few years Kingston remained a country magistrate as well as courtier and acted on the King’s behalf levying men in his home county, when he was in London he stayed with the Black Friars.

In April 1523 Kingston joined Lord Dacre on the northern frontier and Kingston along with Sir Ralph Ellerker were assigned some of the most dangerous posts including being at the capture of Cessford Castle. He returned to London suddenly and was appointed Captain of the Guard and a Knight of the King’s Body. On 30th August 1523 along with Charles Brandon he landed at Calais and on 28th May 1524 he was appointed Constable of the Tower with a salary of £100, in addition to this he also signed the petition to Pope Clement VII regarding the King’s divorce in July 1530.

Kingston would be involved in some of the biggest political events of the 1530’s in November 1530 went to Sheffield Park, Nottinghamshire to take charge of Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey was concerned as he was once told that he would meet his death at Kingston, although Kingston tried to reassure him that he was not there to kill him he was with Wolsey when he died and later rode back to London to inform the King of the news.

Kingston travelled to Calais with Henry VIII for a second meeting with Francis I at Boulogne and on 29th May 1533 he greeted Anne Boleyn at the Tower of London where she would stay before her coronation.

He remained the Constable of the Tower and on 2nd May 1536 he received Anne Boleyn once again at the Tower who had been sent to the Tower accused of adultery. Kingston would report to Thomas Cromwell regarding Anne and her movements whilst imprisoned. He sent his first report on 3rd May where he documented Anne’s arrival and her musings regarding her arrest. He would go on to escort Anne to the scaffold after already telling her that her execution had been postponed.

On 9th March 1539 Kingston was made controller of the household and on 24th April he was made a Knight of the Garter, the King gave Kingston granted Flaxley Abbey to Kingston.

Sir William Kingston attended his last Privy Council meeting on 1st Septmeber 1540 and died on 14th September at his home in Painswick.

Kingston Letter about George BoleynA letter from Sir William Kingston to Thomas Cromwell

about George Boleyn

On this day in 1533 – Princess Elizabeth was christened at Greenwich

Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn was christened on Wednesday 10th September 1533 at the Church of Observant Friars in Greenwich.

The Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic of Henry’s reign documents the events of Elizabeth’s christening;

The mayor, Sir Stephen Peacock, with his brethren and 40 of the chief citizens, were ordered to be at the christening on the Wednesday following; on which day the mayor and council, in scarlet, with their collars, rowed to Greenwich, and the citizens went in another barge.

All the walls between the King’s place and the Friars were hanged with arras, and the way strewed with rushes. The Friars’ church was also hanged with arras. The font, of silver, stood in the midst of the church three steps high, covered with a fine cloth, and surrounded by gentlewomen with aprons and towels about their necks, that no filth should come into it. Over it hung a crimson satin canopy fringed with gold, and round it was a rail covered with red say.

Between the choir and the body of the church was a close place with a pan of fire, to make the child ready in. When the child was brought to the hall every man set forward. The citizens of London, two and two; then gentlemen, squires, and chaplains, the aldermen, the mayor alone, the King’s council, his chapel, in copes; barons, bishops, earls; the earl of Essex bearing the covered gilt basons; the marquis of Exeter with a taper of virgin wax. The marquis of Dorset bare the salt. The lady Mary of Norfolk bare the chrisom, of pearl and stone. The officers of arms. The old duchess of Norfolk bare the child in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long train held by the earl of Wiltshire, the countess of Kent, and the earl of Derby. The dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk were on each side of the Duchess. A canopy was borne over the child by lord Rochford, lord Hussy, lord William Howard, and lord Thomas Howard the elder. Then ladies and gentlemen.

The bishop of London and other bishops and abbots met the child at the church door, and christened it. The archbishop of Canterbury was godfather, and the old duchess of Norfolk and the old marchioness of Dorset godmothers. This done, Garter, with a loud voice, bid God send her long life. The archbishop of Canterbury then confirmed her, the marchioness of Exeter being godmother. Then the trumpets blew, and the gifts were given; after which wafers, comfits, and hypocras were brought in. In going out the gifts were borne before the child, to the Queen’s chamber, by Sir John Dudle, lord Thos. Howard, the younger, lord Fitzwater, and the earl of Worcester. One side was full of the Guard and King’s servants holding 500 staff torches, and many other torches were borne beside the child by gentlemen. The mayor and aldermen were thanked in the King’s name by the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and after drinking in the cellar went to their barge.”

Although Elizabeth was not the son that Henry had wished for her christening was still a lavish celebration of her birth.

Princess ElizabethPrincess Elizabeth as a teenager

On this day in 1533 – Anne Boleyn gave birth to Elizabeth

On 7th September 1533 at 3pm­ Queen Anne Boleyn gave birth at Greenwich Palace, the child was a girl and named Elizabeth after both of her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard.

Astronomers and philosophers predicted that Anne would give birth to a son and preparations had been made for the announcement of a son so when Elizabeth was born Henry was disappointed he had torn the country apart to marry Anne for her to give him another daughter.

With the birth of Elizabeth bonfires were lit across the country but there was little celebration for the Princess many of the jousts and banquets were cancelled. The proclamation announcing her birth had to be altered as it was written before declaring Henry had been given a prince an s was added before they were sent out to the country. It was traditionally for the birth of a daughter to be low key and a similar thing happened at the birth of Princess Mary.

A herald announced the birth of Henry’s first legitimate child whilst the choristers sang the Te Deum in the Chapel Royal.

Although Henry was bitterly disappointed that he still did not have a son it is reported that he said to his wife “You and I are both young, and by God’s grace, boys will follow.”

Upon her birth Elizabeth automatically became Henry’s heiress presumptive as Henry’s first daughter had been barred from the succession and declared ill­­egitimate.

Birth announcement of ElizabethThe announcement of Princess Elizabeth’s birth