Tag Archives: Battle of Bosworth

On this day in 1545 – Charles Brandon died

Charles Brandon was born in 1484 to Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. Brandon’s father, William was the standard bearer for King Henry VII and was killed at the Battle of Bosworth. As a result of his father’s death Charles was brought up at the court of the new King and at a young age became friends with Prince Henry.

Brandon married Margaret Neville, a widower some 20 years his senior but by 1507 the marriage was declared void firstly by the Archdeaconry Court of London and then later by a papal bull that was issued on 12th May 1528. The following year Brandon went on to marry Anne Browne, Margaret’s niece, in a secret ceremony at Stepney with a public ceremony taking place at St Michael’s, Cornhill. The couple went on to have two daughters; Anne and Mary. Unfortunately Brandon’s wife would die just three years later in 1511.

With King Henry VIII succeeding the throne, Brandon found himself in a position of power as he remained a close friend and confidante to the new King and as a result held a number of positions within the court. In 1513 Brandon was given the position of Master of the Horse and also many lands that were considered highly valuable. Brandon was also present at the sieges of Thérouanne and Tournai during the War of the League of Cambrai and at the time Henry was pushing Margaret of Savoy to marry Brandon to strengthen their union. Henry also created Brandon the Duke of Suffolk.

Henry’s plan to marry Margaret of Savoy and Brandon did not work as also in 1513 Brandon was contracted to marry Elizabeth Grey, 5th Baroness Lisle and on 15th May 1513 was granted the title of 1st Viscount Lisle as a result of his forthcoming, however, Brandon did not go through with the marriage as a result of marrying the King’s sister, Mary, after the death of her first husband – the King of France. Brandon was forced to give up the title of Viscount Lisle.

Brandon and Princess Mary, Henry’s sister, married in secret in France after Brandon was sent to escort the Dowager Queen home following the death of her husband King Louis XII. The new King, Francis, encouraged the marriage in an attempt to not return Mary’s plate and jewels to England. The pair married in private on 5th March 1515 before setting off from France to return to England. Upon their arrival back in London Brandon confided in Cardinal Wolsey regarding his new marriage to the King’s sister.

Without Cardinal Wolsey we do not know how King Henry would have reacted but Wolsey was able to calm the angered King and the couple were ordered to pay Henry £24,000 in yearly instalments of £1,000 as well as Mary’s dowry from Louis which totalled £200,000 alongside the gold plate and jewels that the old King of France had promised to Mary. The couple were married at Greenwich Hall on 13th May after the papal bull was secure to declare Brandon’s first marriage officially void.

Brandon and Mary retired to the countryside for some years to avoid the King’s anger, however, Brandon was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520 and in 1523 he was sent to Calais to oversee the English troops stationed there. Brandon and Mary would have two sons and two daughters, with his daughter Frances giving birth to Lady Jane Grey.

Charles Brandon returned to Henry’s court and his influence with the King increase following the fall of Cardinal Wolsey. Brandon along with Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk was sent to demand the return of the Great Seal from Wolsey. Brandon was also instructed to convey to Katherine of Aragon news that Henry had married Anne Boleyn and that she was to now be referred to as Dowager Princess.

Mary died on 25th June 1533 and in the same year Brandon married his 14 year old ward, Catherine Willoughby. Catherine was originally betrothed to Brandon’s son Henry but Brandon believed he was too young to marry and so in order not to lose Catherine’s lands he married her himself . Catherine and Brandon would have two sons together, Henry and Charles; they died from the sweating sickness at a young age.

Brandon supported Henry’s plans during the dissolution of the monasteries and was in receipt of many lands and in 1544 Brandon once again led the English army as they prepared for an invasion of France.

Charles Brandon died on 22nd August 1545 aged 61 at Guildford, Surrey and was buried at St George’s Chapel, Windsor with Henry VIII covering the costs of the funeral. Brandon had requested a quiet funeral but Henry wanted to honour his close friend, Brandon’s death hit Henry hard as he had lost his longest companion and he himself would die less than 18 months later.

Mary Tudor and Charles BrandonCharles Brandon and Mary Tudor

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On this day in 1485 – Battle of Bosworth

Henry Tudor had spent most of his life living in exile in France with his uncle, Jasper. Henry became a figurehead for the Lancastrians cause in the Wars of the Roses. Henry and Jasper set sail from Harfleur on 1st August 1485 and landed on at Mill Bay, Dale in Wales on 7th August 1485.

Henry and his army set up camp at the newly captured Dale Castle upon their landing few Welsh joined Tudor’s army as it set off on its march inland. The army set off towards Haverfordwest and Pembrokeshire. As the army moved King Richard III lieutenant in South Wales, Sir Walter Herbert failed to move the King’s army against Henry and eventually two of Herbert’s men, Richard Griffith and Evan Morgan defected to Henry’s army. As the army progressed another Welsh figure, Rhys Fawr ap Maredudd also joined Henry.

Henry began his march towards Aberystwyth but before he did he was able to persuade Rhys ap Thomas, King Richard’s Lieutenant in West Wales to join his side and set him on a southerly route to gather more Welshmen to the army. They would later reunite at Welshpool. By the 16th August Henry’s army crossed into England at Shrewsbury.

News of Henry’s arrival on Welsh soil reached King Richard on 11th August but there was a delay in messengers notifying of the King’s plans but finally on 16th August the Yorkist army began to gather with armies setting off for a meeting point at Leicester.

Henrys route to bosworthHenry’s route from Dale to Bosworth

With Henry Tudor taking the town of Shrewsbury and the army rested they set out once again eastwards picking up more and more followers and deserters from Richard’s army. Henry’s army slowly moved towards Staffordshire, Henry was delaying the inevitable meeting with Richard and his army. Henry’s decision to slow his army down was a tactical one as he wanted to gain more supporters; in particularly he was hoping to recruit his step father Lord Stanley to his cause.

Henry had two secret meetings with Stanley as he continued marching his army towards London. The second of these meetings was at Atherstone, Warwickshire. The Stanley’s would not commit either way as was typical of the Stanley family, they always assured that they had a member of the family on the winning side.

On 20th August Richard arrived in Leicester and was informed that Henry and his army were nearby. Richard instructed his army to march west and to cut the Tudor army off before they reached London. Richard’s army moved past Sutton Cheney towards Ambion Hill where they camped for the night. Meanwhile the following night Lord Stanley’s army camped on a hill nearby north of Dadlington and Henry and his army camped at White Moors.

On the morning of 22nd August Richard’s Yorkist army, which stood at approximately 10,000 men, left Ambion Hill. The army309 were separated into three clear groups; Norfolk led the first to the right protecting the 1,200 archers and cannons, Richard was in the middle that comprised of 3,000 infantry and finally on the left was Northumberland with 4,000 men. From Ambion Hill Richard could see the Stanleys and their army of 6,000 men, a concern for Richard as no one knew who Stanley or his brother would fight for.

Meanwhile, at White Moors Henry was readying his army. The Tudor army consisted of approximately 5,000 men Henry’s army consisted of less than 1,000 Englishmen and many of those had deserted Richard’s army. The rest of the army consisted of approximately 1,800 Frenchmen and some Scottish; the remainder were recruits that were picked up along their route in Wales include a vast amount of troops courtesy of Rhys ap Thomas.

As Henry’s troops began their march towards Ambion Hill it is believed that they passed a marsh at the southwestern part of the hill, meanwhile Richard sent a messenger to Lord Stanley ordering him to send his army to attack Henry and if he did not Richard would have Stanley’son, Lord Strange, executed. Stanley simply replied that he had more sons and with that Richard ordered the execution but the officers delayed. At the same time Stanley was being asked to declare for Henry but still Stanley delayed.

Henry handed control of the army over to the Earl of Oxford and retired with his body guards to the rear of the army, Henry had little military action and so relied on someone who was experienced in battle. Oxford decided to keep the army together instead of following Richard’s example of splitting the army into three. Oxford ordered the troops to go no further than 10 feet from the banners. The large army was flanked by horsemen on either side of the line.

Henry’s army were fired at by Richard’s cannons as they made their way around the marsh once they were clear Norfolk and the right flank began to advance and began firing arrows at the advancing Tudor army. Norfolk was at a disadvantage so Richard ordered Northumberland to send his troops in to assist but Northumberland failed to move.

With Henry’s army having the advantage Henry rode to muster Stanley into battle, Richard seeing this led a charge into Henry’s group where Richard killed Henry’s standard bearer, Sir William Brandon and even unhorsed John Cheyne, the former standard bearer of King Edward IV. The remainder of Henry’s bodyguards surrounded Henry and kept him out of the way of Richard’s group. Seeing Henry and his men engaged in battle with Richard caused Stanley to lead his men into battle to support Henry. The new development meant that Richard’s army was now outnumbered and slowly began being pushed back towards the marsh, during this Richard’s standard bearer Sir Percival Thirwell was cut down but kept holding the Yorkist banner until he was killed.

389The Battle of Bosworth recreation

It was reported by Polydore Vergil, who was the official historian of Henry VII, wrote;

Richard had come within a sword’s length of Henry Tudor before being surrounded by Sir William Stanley’s men and killed. The Burgundian chronicler Jean Molinet says that a Welshman struck the deathm blow with a halberd while Richard’s horse was stuck in the marshy ground. It was said that the blows were so violent that the King’s helmet was driven into his skull. The contemporary Welsh poet Guto’r Glyn implies the leading Welsh Lancastrian Rhys ap Thomas, or one of his men, killed the king, writing that he ‘killed the boar, shaved his head.”

With the news of Richard’s death spreading around the battle the Yorkist army fled with Northumberland escaping the battle alive but Norfolk was captured and killed.

228The site of the Battle of Bosworth

With Henry Tudor victorious and the battle over it is believed that Lord Stanley found Richard’s circlet in a hawthorn bush (this has never been proven nor disproven) and crowned Henry on Crown Hill near Stoke Golding. Around 100 of Henry’s men lost their lives compared to 1,000 of Richard’s men, the dead were taken to St James Church in Dadlington for burial, whilst Richard was stripped naked and thrown over the back of a horse and carried towards Leicester where he was put on display for the public to see that the old King was dead. Richard was then taken to the church of the Greyfriars where he was buried in an unmarked small grave where he would lie until he was discovered in 2012 and reinterred at Leicester Cathedral in 2015.

121King Richard’s grave

Back in 1485 Henry was proclaimed King Henry VII and dismissed his army only retaining a small group that he called the ‘Yeomen of his Garde’. He instantly called on Parliament to reverse the attainder that had been passed in his name and had the reign of Richard declared as illegal, this decision also reversed Richard’s decision to declare the children of King Edward IV as illegitimate therefore restoring Elizabeth to the title of Princess and making their forthcoming marriage easier. Henry also dated his reign from the day before the battle making anybody that fought for Richard traitors.

With the death of Richard saw the end of the Plantagenet dynasty and the beginning of the Tudors.

016The standards of Richard and Henry at the Bosworth visitor centre

On this day in 1487 – Battle of Stoke Field

Two years after the Battle of Bosworth and the victory of King Henry VII the last battle of the Wars of the Roses took place. On 16th June 1487 at Stoke Field King Henry VII and the Lancastrian army took to the field against the remaining Yorkist army.

The battle saw the Yorkists place their hopes on a man called Lambert Simnel who had come to the attention of the Earl of Lincoln, John de la Pole. Simnel was claiming to be the nephew of King Richard III and the son of George, Duke of Clarence and therefore the rightful heir to the throne. Simnel had gathered support abroad after fleeing to the Low Countries and the court of the Duchess of Burgundy, his aunt. Here Simnel gained the trust of Thomas David, captain of the English garrison at Calais, Sir Richard Harleston, former governor of Jersey and most importantly Lord Lovell, Richard’s most trusted aide. With some of the most loyal Yorkist supporters behind him they set said for Ireland to gather even more support.

Simnel and his followers landed in Dublin on 4th May 1487 and quickly gained even more support from the Irish. It was here on 24th May that Simnel was crowned King Edward VI. With this the army set of with England and the throne in their sights.

They landed on 4th June and found their army stood at approximately 8000 men. Just days later Lord Lovell led 2000 of these men on a late night attack against a small Lancastrian army of just 400 men led by Lord Clifford. Unsurprisingly it was a Yorkist victory.

Following a skirmish on Bootham Bar, York John de la Pole and the army continued south and just outside of Doncaster they fought with the Lancastrian army that was being led by Edward Woodville. Fighting continued for three days through Sherwood Forest as the Yorkist army forced Woodville and the Lancastrians back towards Nottingham. It was in Nottingham that Woodville waited for the rest of the army to join him, it was on 14th June that Lord Strange arrived with reinforcements as well as Rhys ap Thomas with support from Wales. Now King Henry VII’s army was bigger and better equipped than the Yorkists.

The following day on 15th June Henry and his army headed for Newark but it wasn’t until the 16th when they had caught up with de la Pole and the Yorkist army. At 9am the Earl of Oxford encountered the Yorkists on the top of Rampire Hill. They were surrounded on three sides by the River Trent and were just by the village of East Stoke.

Some Lancastrian soldiers deserted the army after misinterpreting lights in the sky as a sign of things to come but Oxford quickly bought the remainder of the army back together and readied them for battle. The Battle of Bosworth had taken place on two years previously and Henry followed a similar battle plan and let the Earl of Oxford take control of the vanguard as well as the direction that the fight would take. The Lancastrian army would be separated into three distinct battles whereas the Yorkists attacked in a single formation. After coming under arrow fire from the Lancastrians the Yorkists abandoned their high ground and attacked in the hope of breaking the opposition apart.

Oxford’s vanguard was left shaken after the Yorkist attack but it regrouped and the battle continued for the next three hours between the vanguard and the entire York army. With the vanguard holding strong Henry took the decision not to send in the other two attack groups. The vanguard had experienced longbowmen and with the lack of armour in the Irish troops the Yorkist army was cut down in size quickly.

With the Lancastrian vanguard in front of them and the River Trent surrounding them the Yorkist army had nowhere to retreat. Many were cut down on the field but some fled towards the river in hopes of escape only to be cornered and killed. All the Yorkist commanders were killed except one, Lord Lovell. Lovell disappeared after the battle and was never seen again. It is believed he escaped to Scotland as there is evidence that safe passage was granted to him. However, a body was found in the 18th century in a secret room inside Minster Lovell, his home in Oxfordshire and although never formally identified many believed it to be Lord Lovell’s body.

After the battle Lambert Simnel was captured and Henry realised that he was nothing more than a Yorkist dream and therefore Henry pardoned the young boy and found him work in the royal kitchen where he was later promoted to falconer. The Irish nobles were also pardoned in order to keep them on Henry’s side in the future.

There now stands a stone memorial in the place where the battle took place that reads “Here stood the Burrand Bush planted on the spot where Henry VII placed his standard after the Battle of Stoke 16 June 1487”

This was the last battle to take place between Lancastrian and Yorkist armies.

Stoke field monumentBattle of Stoke Field monument

On this day in 1511 – William Courtenay died

William Courtenay was born in 1475 to Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and his wife, Elizabeth. His father had fought alongside Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth and as such the family was well regarded by the new Tudor monarch.

William, like his father was a key supporter of King Henry VII and he was made a Knight Bachelor on 25th November 1487. A Knight Bachelor is the lowest rank of a man who has been knighted that in modern day is awarded for public service. William was awarded this title at the coronation of Elizabeth of York.

In 1495 William married Catherine of York, the sixth daughter of King Edward IV and sister to Queen Elizabeth. The couple went on to have children a son, Henry and it is argued as to whether they had one or two daughters both called Margaret. It is rumoured that the youngest Margaret died at a young age from choking on a fish bone.

William like his father fought on the battlefields to help secure Henry VII’s throne and was a Captain in the royal army. He took to the field with his father in 1497 at the Battle of Blackheath to defeat Perkin Warbeck and his army as he attempted to stake his claim to the throne by claiming to be Richard, Duke of York, the second son of King Edward IV. The defeat of Warbeck at the hands of the Tudor army signalled the end to fighting in the Wars of the Roses.

After the death of his wife King Henry changed and he began to suspect his closest allies of many things. William Courtenay did not escape the king’s suspicious mind and in 1503 he found himself arrested on the accusation that he had been corresponding with Edmund De la Pole, Earl of Suffolk and one of the last survivors of the Yorkist factions. It appears that the basis for Henry’s suspicion is down to the fact that William and Edmund were related through William’s wife. Attainder quickly followed and William remained in the Tower of London until King Henry VII died and his son took the throne in 1509.

Newly released William was granted the honour of sword bearer at Henry VIII’s coronation. William was present at jousts and banquets that were thrown for the King and his wife, Katherine of Aragon

Henry had begun the process restore William as Earl of Devon, however it is unknown whether it was completed before William died on 9th June 1511 from pleurisy, William’s body lay in the King’s Court at Greenwich for three days before the King announced that his burial should be of a nobleman. As a result William was buried in Blackfriars, London.

Courtenay armsArms and heraldic badge on the walls of Exeter Cathedral

On this day in 1509 – Edward Courtenay died

Edward Courtenay was born to Sir Hugh Courtenay and Margaret Carminow whose family were loyal to the Lancastrians and also the Tudors.

Edward Courtenay was one of Henry Tudor’s companions whilst he was in exile in France and he also fought alongside Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth. During his time in France Courtenay acted as a courier between France and England in the 1480’s and sought patronage of Margaret Beaufort.

In 1471 at the Battle of Tewkesbury Edward’s cousin once removed, John Courtenay, 7th Earl of Devon was killed and the Earldom expired as John Courtenay had no children. With the Earldom was no longer bestowed on anyone the newly crowned King Henry VII created Edward the new Earl making him the 1st Earl of Devon on 26th October 1485. At King Henry’s coronation Edward was given the honour of carrying the second sword in the procession.

Courtenay married his distant cousin, Elizabeth Courtenay and they went on to have one son, William, whose son was beheaded in 1539 alongside Margaret Pole for allegedly plotting to place Reginald Pole upon the throne.

Edward had a fairly quiet life away from court. He fought at the Battle of Stoke in 1487 and led a retinue of 99 men in France. In 1494 Edward was inducted into the Knight of the Garter, a prestigious honour granted to few men.

Edward was an influential courtier and ruled much of Devon on behalf of the crown. The county remained loyal to the Tudors and gathered men from Devon and East Cornwall to try to stop the imposter Perkin Warbeck. Edward defended the city of Exeter from the rebels and although wounded the rebels eventually disbanded.

Edward made his will on the 27th May 1509 and it is believed that he died the following day on the 28th May. In his will he requested to be buried in Tiverton chapel next to his wife. Edward had left his son William in line for the Earldom but on the condition that William obtained the King’s pardon. William had been imprisoned since 1502 and was under attainder since 1504.

Edward Courtenay monument

On this day in 1509 – King Henry VII died

On 21st April 1509 King Henry VII, the first monarch of the House of Tudor died.

King_Henry_VII

Henry won the throne from King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 and by marrying Elizabeth of York he united the houses of York and Lancaster bringing an end to civil unrest. Henry restored political stability to England as well as many administrative, economic and diplomatic advances. However, Henry’s final years were overshadowed by his greed and unfair treatment which caused many Englishmen to be indebted to Henry. Upon his death Henry had gained a personal fortune of £1.25 million, which is the equivalent of £978 million in 2015.

Henry VII was not a military man and did not seek to gain fame on the battlefield so he signed peace treaties that ensured peace remained. Henry formed many alliances which he strengthened through marriage. His son, Arthur, was betrothed to Katherine, daughter of Queen Isabella of Catile and King Ferdinand of Aragon. Henry also married his daughter, Margaret, to King James IV of Scotland.

Although the Wars of the Roses had ended Henry still had to deal with rebellions from those loyal to the former King as well as pretenders to the throne most notably Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck who both claimed to be the rightful heirs to the throne.

King Henry’s wife, Elizabeth, died in 1503 during childbirth and Henry attempted to negotiate a new marriage and even briefly considered marrying Katherine of Aragon, the widow of his son and heir Arthur. However, neither this nor any other women that was considered ended up being the new queen of England. After the death Elizabeth, Henry fell ill and would only allow his mother, Margaret Beaufort, to attend him. The Tower of London was not used again as a residential palace by Henry and even his son used other palaces in London for the births of his children. It appears then that the death of the Queen affected both her husband and son deeply.

The last couple of years of Henry’s reign he had been ill many times however, in February 1509 he became ill once again and this time it was likely he would die. On the evening of 20th April Henry summoned his confessor to administer the last rites. He knew his time was coming to an end. His confessor anointed Henry with the holy oil and performed mass.

King Henry VII died at Richmond Palace at 11pm on 21st April 1509 of turberculosis. He was buried at Westminster Abbey next to his wife in the chapel that he commissioned. His son Henry was proclaimed King on 24th April.

Henry VII tomb

The origins of the Tudor dynasty.

The Tudor’s are one of history’s most famous families and their association with Wales stems back to their origins all the way to Henry Tudor landing in Dale to begin his march towards Bosworth and the crown.

The earliest Tudors date back to 1240 where they were landowners in Four Cantrels (later Denbigh) and later served Llywelyn ab lorwerth. Ednyfed Fychan, steward to the Prince, married a daughter of Lord Rhys and his sons also followed into representing the Prince of Gwynedd. One of these sons was Tudur ap Ednyfed (Tudur son of Ednyfed) whose service was rewarded with land in North Wales, where the Tudor dynasties origins begin.

When Edward I successes the English throne in 1272 he set his sights on conquering Wales and the descendants of Ednyfed saw that it would be more beneficial for them to support the new King. Their decision to switch sides paid off when Edward I took control of the country. However, not everyone in the family was happy with the new King and they joined a failed rebellion against the monarch. One of these rebels was Tudur Hen, Lord of Penmyndd, who quickly swore his allegiance to Edward of Caernarfon and when he died his land passed to his son Goronwy ap Tudur (Goronwy son of Tudur).

Tudur Hen had five sons, they all held positions of importance in North Wales. They were all loyal to the current King, Richard II and two of the brothers Rhys and Gwilym served the King in Ireland whilst on campaign. Richard II was deposed in 1399 by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke, Henry IV. Unhappy with Richard II being usurped the Tudur’s cousin Owain Glyndwr initiated a Welsh uprising against the new King. At first the rebellion was a success with many Welsh lands gained, however in 1401 Henry Percy issued an amnesty to all Welsh rebels except Owain Glyndwr, Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur. The Tudur brothers were later pardoned after they were captured at Conwy castle. The third Tudur brother Maredydd had his land confiscated and was removed from his positions.

Maredydd ap Tudur married Margaret ferch Thomas and they had a son named Owen ap Tudur ap Maredydd. In an attempt to turn the Tudur families fortunes around they moved to London and Owen, aged seven, was sent to the English court of Henry IV acting as a page. Owen now also went by the name Owen Tudor to make his sound more anglicised by having a surname. Owen also went on the serve Henry V and fought at Agincourt in 1415.

After the death of Henry V in 1422 Owen was appointed the keeper of the wardrobe to the Dowager Queen, Catherine of Valois. The story goes that they met and fell in love when he tripped over and fell into her lap, although this is unproven. The soon married, however it broke a law that stated that the King’s permission was required. Owen and Catherine had two sons, Edmund and Jasper who grew up in the court of their half brother Henry VI. They were granted the Earldoms of Richmond and Pembroke respectively and in return they remained loyal to the King and the House of Lancaster. Owen Tudor went on to lead Lancastrian armies during the Wars of the Roses and was ultimately captured during the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross by Edward, Earl of March (later Edward IV).

His sons Edmund and Jasper continued to fight for Henry VI. In 1455 Edmund was married to Lady Margaret Beaufort, descendant of John of Gaunt through his illegitimate children. Edmund Tudor died from the plague two months before his son was born. This child would grow up to become King Henry VII.

Henry VIII Margaret Beaufort

         Henry Tudor as King Henry VII and his mother Margaret Beaufort

During Henry VI’s reign, Jasper was charged with maintaining Lancastrian ties in Wales and also looked after his widowed sister in law and her infant, Henry. Upon Edward IV’s ascension and the rise of the House of York, Jasper remained loyal to Henry VI and his Queen Margaret of Anjou. Once Henry VI was captured and murdered and the Lancastrian cause temporarily lost. Jasper fled from Tenby, Wales with the young Henry and they fled to Brittany in order to keep Henry safe. Jasper taught and trained Henry. Jasper was always gaining support for the Lancastrian claim to the throne whilst Henry’s mother was promoting her son as the heir to the Lancastrian throne.

Jasper, Henry and 2000 men set sail from Harfleur, France on 1st August 1485 and landed in Dale on the west coast of Wales. They marched towards Richard III’s army capturing town and gaining more and more supporters as they went finally meeting on Bosworth battlefield on the 22nd August. Where Richard III was killed in battle and it saw the end of the Plantagenet rule and the rise of the Tudors to the throne.

403           The winning Lancastrian army kneel down to their new King.