Tag Archives: Bishop of Salisbury

On this day in 1571 – Bishop John Jewel died

John Jewel was born in Buden, Devon and was educated originally by his uncle John Bellamy, rector of Hampton along with other private tutors until he matriculated at Merton College, Oxford in July 1535 where he was taught by John Pankhurst.

On 19th August 1539 Jewel was elected scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford where he graduated with a BA in 1540 and an MA in 1545 and was elected fellow of the college in 1542. After 1547 Jewel became of the chief disciples of Pietro Martire Vermigli, also known as Peter Martyr in England.

In 1552 Jewel graduated BD and was made vicar of Sunningwell as well as public orator of the university during which time he was required to write a congratulatory message to Queen Mary I upon her accession to the throne.

Despite signing a series of Catholic articles he was still suspecting of supporting Protestantism and he fled first to London before reaching Frankfurt in March 1555. He soon joined Martire Vermigli at Strasbourg before accompanying him to Zurich and Padua.

John JewelBishop John Jewel

With the accession of Queen Elizabeth I Jewel returned to England and began to secure a Low Church settlement and made it known that he was committed to Elizabeth’s reforms. Jewel was selected as one of nine Protestant disputants that were called upon to attend the Westminster Conference in 1559 where they would face nine Catholic representatives where they would dispute three articles that would help shape the future of Elizabethan England.

Jewel was also a select preacher at St. Paul’s Cross on 15th June and in the on 27th July his congé d’élire as Bishop of Salisbury had been made out although he was not consecrated until 21st January 1560.

Whilst preaching at St. Paul’s Cross on 26th November 1559 Jewel issued a challenge for anyone to prove the Catholics case out of the Scriptures or the councils or Fathers for the first 600 years after Christ. He issued the challenge again in 1560 when Dr Henry Cole took on the challenge. The outcome of this challenge was Jewel’s ‘Apologia ecclesiae Anglicanae’ published in 1562. According to Bishop Creighton, Jewel’s work was the first methodical statement of the position of the Church of England against the Church of Rome.

Jewel’s work received criticism from Thomas Harding, an Oxford contemporary and Catholic that entered a battle of words and thoughts with Jewel. Harding and Jewel would debate over the Anglo-Roman controversy; Jewel’s theology was eventually enjoined upon the Church of England by Archbishop Bancroft during the reign of King James I.

Jewel was consulted by the government on questions such as the English attitude towards the Council of Trent, a highly important ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

Jewel was giving a sermon at Lacock, Wiltshire when he collapsed, he was taken to Monkton Farleigh, a manor house built on the site of a Cluniac priory, where he died on 23rd September 1571. He was buried in Salisbury Catherdral.

Monkton FarleighMonkton Farleigh Manor

On this day in 1577 – Death of Edmund Guest, Bishop of Salisbury

Edmund Guest (or Gheast) died on 28th February 1577. Born in 1514 in Yorkshire he led a very academic childhood attending York Grammar School, Eton College and Kings College in Canterbury.

Whilst in Canterbury Guest became chaplain to Archbishop Matthew Parker who went on to make Guest Archdeacon of Canterbury and Rector of Cliffe, Kent. In 1560 Guest was made Bishop of Rochester, which duties he performed alonside his role as Archdeacon of Canterbury.

In 1563 he was invited to participate in the Convocation which was being held under his mentor Archbishop Parker. Their task was to revise the 42 articles. The origin of the 42 articles goes back to 1536 and Thomas Cranmer’s six articles that acted as the first guidelines for the Church of England. Over the years the articles were expanded and revised. It grew to 42 in 1552 under Edward VI. With the ascension of Mary I the articles were no longer enforced as Mary tried to turn the country back towards Catholism.

Under Elizabeth I and the Convocation led by Archbishop Parker only 39 of the 42 articles were passed, Elizabeth reduced this further to 38. Elizabeth did not want to offend any English citizens that still practised Catholism and so article XXIX was removed. It was later restored in 1571 after Elizabeth was excommunicated by the Pope the previous year. Bishop Guest opposed the article but his protests went unheard as Elizabeth approved the reintroduction of the article.

Guest was appointed to the role of Bishop of Salisbury in 1571, which he held until his death in 1577. He was buried in Salisbury Cathedral’s choir.