Tag Archives: King Francis I

On this day in 1518 – Princess Mary and the Dauphin of France were betrothed

As part of the Treaty of London, signed on 28th February 1518, an agreement was made that would betroth Princess Mary of England and the Dauphin of France two betrothal ceremonies would take place on in England, on 5th October, the second in Paris on 16th December.

Treaty of LondonThe Treaty of London

On 5th December 1518 the two year old Princess Mary was taken to the court at Greenwich and presented to the French Maryambassadors. Standing in for the French Dauphin was Guillaume Gouffier, Lord Admiral of France. Mary was dressed in a gown of gold cloth and a cap made of black cloth that covered her auburn hair, she was also covered in jewels.

Mary was stood in front of her mother, Katherine of Aragon, until the ceremony began and she was held up to participate. The French ambassador asked for Henry and Katherine’s consent to the marriage, which also meant Mary’s consent. After the royal parents gave their consent the Princess’ godfather, Cardinal Wolsey, presented the Lord Admiral with a Diamond ring which he then placed on the young Princess’ hand.

Mary who behaved throughout the ceremony believed that the Lord Admiral was the Dauphin and asked ‘Are you the Dauphin of France? If you are, I wish to kiss you.’

DauphinFollowing the first betrothal Mary would begin French lessons, the French ambassadors would check on her progress. Mary would never meet the Dauphin as King Henry VIII did not take her to the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 although King Francis took the Dauphin along. Henry eventually broke the betrothal the following year in 1521 when he betrothed Mary to Charles V instead.

Above right: Princess Mary

Left: the Dauphin of France

On this day in 1512 – King James V was born

On 10th April 1512 James V of Scotland was born to King James IV and Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII. James was born at Linlithgow Palace and instantly received the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. King James IV was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and aged just 17 months James became the new King of Scotland.

King James V was crowned on 21st September 1513 at Stirling Castle. As he was still a minority his court was ruled by regents led by his mother, Margaret. Margaret’s control over the council ended when she remarried the following year. The regency passed to John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany.

In 1524 King James V was proclaimed a ruler in his own right and dismissed his Regents. However, James’ independent rule would not be easy his mother’s husband Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, held the King in his custody for three years and attempted to exercise power on his behalf. There were many attempts to rescue the King over the three years. Upon escape James removed Douglas and his family by sending them into exile.

In 1536 King James entered into a marriage contract with Mary of Bourbon, the daughter of the Duke of Vendôme. James set sail to France to he met Mary in person before going on to meet King Francis I. On 1st January 1537 instead of marrying Mary he married Madeleine of Valois, daughter of King Francis I, in Notre Dame, Paris. Only seven months after their wedding Madeleine died. The following year James married Mary of Guise and they had one surviving child, Mary.

In 1541 the King’s mother, Margaret died this removed any remaining ties to England. War soon broke out between the two countries. The Scottish armies were defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss. James was taken ill after the defeat and in the last days of his life his wife gave birth to a daughter, Mary.

King James V died on 15th December 1542 and was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. His daughter Mary took the throne aged just six days old and later became known as Mary, Queen of Scots.

James V